CHANGE YOUR SKIN!
How great-grandfathers repaired the clutch.
At the beginning of the 20th century, most cars were equipped with a clutch, the driven disc of which was a truncated metal cone. He entered the corresponding recess of the flywheel. Usually the taper of the tapering part turned to the engine. Such a scheme was used, in particular, at Russo-Balt (see ЗР, 1999, No. 4). Some firms, such as Renault, did the opposite: the tapering part of the cone was facing the gearbox, and the base was in contact with a special ring attached to the flywheel - the drive disk. When the driver pressed the pedal, the cone, overcoming the spring force, was recessed into the flywheel - the disks were disengaged. The trim on the driven cone was leather. It is clear that she did not serve for long.
To replace the pads, the disc was removed by disconnecting the telescopic drive shaft. Usually, an engine or gearbox was dismantled for this. Craftsmen came up with another way. After removing the plug, a jack was placed between the clutch and the box (see. Fig.). With its help, the conical disk was maximally sunk into the flywheel and removed one part of the shaft from the other. Then, the nuts of the drive plate were unscrewed and, slowly (so that the spring did not “fire”), releasing the jack, both disks were removed from the flywheel.
Many motorists had to replace the pads. At the beginning of the century, they acted in much the same way. True, copper rivets were knocked down very carefully so as not to damage the springs passing through them and to preserve the skin. After all, a new overlay is usually marked out according to the old. Having made holes with a punch, having cut and cut the patch with a sharp knife, its thickness was leveled. Sometimes this work was entrusted to professionals - a shoemaker or a saddler. Gradually pulling the skin, one by one the springs were installed and the pad was riveted to the disk (as they wrote in manuals of that time: “the side of the wool is inside”). Trying on the skin to the leading disk, the rasp finally adjusted its thickness in place so that there were no gaps between the disks.