Anonim

TESTING

Hard workers

COMPETITORS FROM KAMA

After a serious and prolonged illness, the Kama Automobile Plant gradually gets to its feet. Complex with a design capacity of 150 thousand cars in a particularly difficult

In 1998 only 3400 were able to build. And of the 130 thousand workers, less than half remained.

Andrey SIDOROV

But it seems that dashing times are a thing of the past. The third (!) Since 1997, the management team managed to breathe life into the half-dead auto giant, and by the end of 1999 things had finally gone uphill. Salary became monthly, car production rose to 14, 500, and the lineup outlined some movement in pursuit of rapidly progressing forward.

It is no secret that in particularly difficult natural conditions (and in Russia there are almost no others) at any large construction site, preference was given to imported equipment. Alas, business and patriotism when calculating estimates do not get along well with each other. The machine should work reliably and reliably, and not serve the hard worker as a place of daily achievement. That is why domestic dump trucks were less and less found in the "north's" or in the Siberian wilderness - they are unreliable. Instead, the Tatras, Magiruses, Mercedeses and other imports worked.

But how much can you miss such a tidbit from wealthy customers - oil and gas workers? Here KamAZ launched an attack on a niche occupied by strangers, having prepared a whole gamut of trucks for this.

Today our story is about KamAZ-65115 dump trucks with a 6x4 and 65111 (6x6) wheel arrangement.

The first of these is the further modernization of the well-known model 55111. With an increase in carrying capacity up to 15 tons, instead of the previous 13, he moved to the next class, as indicated by the number “6” in the index.

POWER UNIT AND TRANSMISSION. The KamAZ-740.20-260 engine is a further development of the KamAZ-740 base model. Now it complies with the Euro I toxicity standards. Turbocharging, the changed organization of the combustion process and the parameters of the power system have resulted in a power increase of up to 260 liters. with. instead of the previous 210.

The air-oil cooler was replaced with a liquid heat exchanger - in it the oil gives off excess heat to the engine cooling system. This solution made it possible to more effectively maintain optimal temperature conditions.

The increased power and high reliability requirements entailed other improvements not noticeable at first glance. For example, the heat treatment of the connecting rod bolts has been changed, and instead of the usual nuts, they are now twelve-sided copper-plated - these are less deformed when tightened. The crank breakage previously encountered due to the opening of the joint is now practically obsolete. Instead of block head bolts, studs. They more reliably withstand the increased effective pressure in the cylinders.

The improved rubber composition of o-rings for cooling and lubrication systems has finally solved the problem of their tightness. If earlier a rare engine dispensed with their replacement to 70 thousand kilometers, now, according to factory experts, the leakage guarantee is “lifetime”.

Increased engine torque has led to changes in the design of the clutch and gearbox. Instead of the peripheral springs of the pressure disk, now there is one - diaphragm, as on "Lada". Simpler, more reliable, less prone to overheating and loss of elasticity. The mechanism for adjusting the position of the middle drive disk is still the same, with rotary levers, but will soon give way to another, more reliable, with coil springs.

Although the KAMAZ transmission proved to be quite good, the changes affected it too. The gears of the intermediate shaft are installed on the shaft with interference, without keys. This made it possible to reduce radial runout, which means that it eased the working conditions of the teeth, reduced noise and increased reliability. By the way, all new dump trucks have a gearbox with a divider. Therefore, despite the fact that the nominal engine speed is reduced from the previous 2600 to 2200 rpm, the maximum speed of the machine is 90 km / h. For this, the gear ratio of the main transmission was chosen as the smallest of the standard series - 5.43.

In addition, the width of its cylindrical gears was increased, and instead of 18 splines on the axle shafts, it became 20. The increased working area made it possible to reduce the specific pressure in the contact spot, and thus slow down wear.

The main innovation, which drivers have long dreamed of, is the cross-axle blocking of the drive axles. To do this, a sliding sleeve was installed on the splines of one half-axis, which, with end teeth, engages with the differential cup. He through the satellites is rigidly connected with the other axis. Now, having blocked three differentials (center and two axles), the driver gets additional chances in the fight against impassability.

Differential tapered differential bearings in new axles are secured with more powerful nuts with a thread pitch increased to 2 mm. The former, 1.5 mm, it happened, squeezed out - after that I had to change the gear assembly.

The bridges themselves are still suspended from the frame on the jet rods, but instead of the ball joints requiring vigilant attention, unpretentious rubber-metal ones appeared. The durability is such that during tests in the scientific and technical center they had to be installed in special traction - standard tubular ones were torn, unable to withstand even half the hinge resource.

BRAKES. Instead of stamped cast calipers appeared, much more rigidity. The former used to bend, unable to withstand the efforts of the brake chambers. New brake levers with automatic adjustment will appear soon, and a little later - disc brakes with ABS - these are the modern requirements for trucks. An alcohol fuse against freezing of condensate in the brake system is a thing of the past. Instead of it - a water-oil separator and a replaceable silica gel desiccant cartridge. No condensation - nothing to freeze.

WHEELS. Now they are with disk rims, fixed on the hubs in the old fashion - nuts. Previous wedge clamps did not provide increased safety requirements, although replacing the wheel with them was easier.

STEERING. The new power steering has migrated to the dump truck from the 4310 model - an all-wheel drive truck. The larger diameter of the piston rod and pivot pins on needle bearings create additional comfort for the driver, making it easier to control a heavy machine.

CABIN. The changes affecting her are not so significant, but still quite noticeable. The ceiling has become higher, the upholstery is like in a passenger car. Above the windshield is a regular shelf with places for a radio and speaker system.

The gear windows in the doors gave way to a more practical cable, and the door locks are now rotary. They are more reliable than the former, with a dog, and much easier to open.

The Webasto heater control unit appeared on the front panel - it is included in the standard equipment of the dump truck. They can warm up the frozen engine before starting and maintain the desired temperature in the parking lot. The former PZhD-30 starting heater, although more powerful, only warmed up the engine, served only two or three years, and then needed to be replaced by a boiler. In addition, they put it on special order, mainly on army trucks.

DUMPING INSTALLATION. The appearance of the body has noticeably changed. Traditionally durable, it has become 20% roomier. The heating system, which reduces the buildup of soil in the cold, is also somewhat changed - the exhaust gases are not selected to heat the platform, but to the muffler, where their temperature is much higher. And when the body is raised, they are automatically sent to the muffler. The hydraulic cylinder for lifting the body, thanks to strict control of the quality of production, finally found proper tightness and does not leave oil under the machine after each unloading of a puddle.

IMPRESSIONS FROM THE DRIVER'S SPACE. On a new dump truck I had a chance to ride through the winter suburbs of Naberezhnye Chelny. I will not say that the impressions are strikingly different from its predecessor 55111. Unless the engine is noticeably more powerful and more powerful, and therefore the car runs more willingly. The gas-brake pedal block was replaced by separate, more reliable ones. The former, aluminum, often “soured” on steel axles, or even broke off (!). (The separation of the pedals is caused by the transfer of the pneumatic brake valve from the frame spar to the front cab shield, which, in our opinion, is justified - it is more reliable.)

The noise from the engine in the cabin is still a bit big, but, they say, it fits into the norm of 80 decibels. Apparently, the driver’s method of dealing with it will remain the same - a padded jacket on the motor, and the gear lever in its cotton sleeve. Not so aesthetically pleasing, but noticeably quieter.

Thanks to the cross-axle differential locks, the risk of getting stuck in the snow is less - the car confidently “row” with all four wheels of the rear bogie. And the all-wheel drive 65111 completely conquered off-road capabilities. It was hard to expect such “courage” from the usual dump truck. Here it is a cut above the predecessor 55111.

However, so far these are only the most superficial impressions of new cars. Let's see what those who happen to work for them say - the first batch of 300 cars is already working on Samotlor in Nizhnevartovsk.

Will KamAZ be able to win a place in the sun, taken by serious competitors from the West, we will see in the near future. And taking into account our three- or four-fold gain in price (factory - 550 thousand rubles), such a prospect is quite real.

Drive axles for new cars - with interwheel locking.

The Webasto heater will warm up both the engine and the cabin.

The anti-roll bar on the front axle significantly increased stability.

Instead of oilcloth, molded ceiling upholstery with an integrated shelf.

The underrun beam is also called the “pier for dummies”.

The fuel priming pump is now on the frame - once again the cab does not need to be lifted.

Instead of five wedge clamps - ten nuts - reliably and safely.

Crane for spare wheel.

All-wheel drive KamAZ-65111 - off-road dump truck.

External speed characteristic of the KamAZ-740.20-260 engine (Euro I).