Note for beginners


A minimum set of tools on board is required for every driver. How to correctly assemble it?


Suppose you got the first car in your life, for example, VAZ 2105 3 - fifty thousand miles, not rotten, in good condition. There is a chance to make this "scab" ride at least as much. Decided to serve yourself? At a good hour - but, most likely, in her trunk, in addition to a bald spare tire, there are only a couple of rusty keys and a jack with a long-standing dislocation of her leg. Well, let’s start collecting “travel” kit, relying on the experience of experienced.

First things first, woeful reserve - to a landfill, carry a normal wheel. Afraid of thieves? Use the ancient recipe - a cable or a chain plus a lock … (Anyway, if you need it, but you will have some consolation - the guys are tormented!) Tire serviceers settled on the roads very unevenly - even in the near Moscow you run the risk of finding three wheels on a forgotten God bless you if there is an unreliable spare wheel in the trunk. Murphy's Law does not sleep - one more wheel will be pierced right there.

A dubious jack is not a place here either. They don’t joke with this “device” - it’s not an hour, you’ll remain a cripple. Buy a new one. And at the same time a tire pump or compressor, preferably a Mustang. It is a kind of additional reserve: the high performance of the compressor allows you to quickly pump the wheel dying out before your eyes and get to the house with short dashes. The pump is needed not only for tire inflation. With it, for example, you can blow out the carburetor or, using it as a syringe, pump oil into the gearbox of the bridge. And if the fuel pump fails (on a carburetor machine), you can reinforce the fuel tank - and so get to the garage.

First aid kit, fire extinguisher, warning triangle? Well, these are obligatory subjects … Read the Rules!

Finally, even if you are a notorious lucky person, do not forget to hide the tow rope and the cigarette lighter cables in the trunk …

Now about the tools. Do not be compared to other “economic” motorists who carry in the trunk everything that somehow gets there. "Lada" is not a truck - you just need to moderate your appetites and carry only what you need. But what?

There are no strict recipes, but it is known that the delicate systems such as fuel and ignition bear the main concerns to the owner. Most often, you will have to act with small keys - “8”, “10”, “12”, “13”. They should be in the trunk of each. Motorists are fond of the famous “Zhiguli” duct “8x10” paired with a screwdriver that serves as a wrench. By the way, there are also larger tubes on sale.

Convenient T and T-socket wrenches. In many cases, working with them is more adroit, since the key can be easily and quickly rotated - if only the place allowed! Those who specialize in repair, especially appreciate these advantages. In serious workshops you will see whole arsenals of home-made T-shaped keys.

There are on sale and more complex, cross-shaped keys. But it is hardly worth it, being carried away, buying a curious tool with a head uniting several sizes - most often it is inconvenient to use it.

In many works, you have to act with two keys at once, so there are several of them in the arsenal of an experienced mechanic - of the same size, but often of different configurations.

Do not do without a screwdriver. The well-known universal, with two ends - flat and “cross” is convenient for everyone. It is important that its handle does not dissolve in gasoline. And in some operations with a carburetor, a smaller screwdriver with a “sting” 4 mm wide may turn out to be the most suitable. We put it in a set as well - the trunk will not pull, but it is indispensable. Without such a screwdriver it is very difficult, for example, to turn the main fuel jets out of the “wells” of the Solex carburetor or adjust the CO with a quality screw. But it is unlikely that on the road you will need large, power (especially shock) screwdrivers, which are needed only to remove the doors or disassemble the gearbox. If you carry such, then rather out of habit.

Are big keys “19”, “22”, etc. required? Of course, "balloon" (L-shaped) and candlelight are necessary. As for the rest, on ordinary trips by car, which the owner is watching, rolling a suitcase with a heavy set does not make much sense. Most large bolts and nuts relate either to the suspension, or to the body, or to those parts of the engine where it is simply indecent to climb between cases. If the ball joint or steering rod is breathing incense, then change them ahead of time, and not on the sidelines! Or is it more like the rumble in the trunk of a hefty key mixed up with spare parts? In other words, large keys can be kept in a garage or at home and taken only for long-distance runs.

True, there are motorists for whom repair is a hobby. The process itself is dear to them. It is useless to argue with them, even if they attach a milling machine to the trunk … After all, mental comfort is important for a motorist. Many get so used to their favorite keys that without them, a trip is not a trip. Carry, for example, sets of heads with the necessary handles - all this, together with an iron box, pulls five kilograms. But … warms the soul of motorists.

People often ask: is it not better to immediately buy a proprietary set of keys for a new car that can seem to do any job?

Yes, some sets are really good for everyone, except for the price. But even a very "wide" set will not always allow you to do a long-known work … and you want to supplement it with old, but correct keys. On the other hand, a significant part of the tools is not really needed, and to share the set, leaving part of the house - a sure way to lose something. So is this kit needed?

And one more thing: the more beautiful chrome sparkles, the more likely it will attract the attention of those who do not disdain and much more modest prey.

What else to put in a suitcase? For example, a tricky home-made key (according to the drawings, published a journal a quarter of a century ago) for adjusting valve clearances. The probes (0.15 mm and 0.4 mm), once included in the standard equipment of the Zhiguli, and wire probes to control the gaps in the candles will also not hinder. And when adjusting the engine, it is better to turn the crankshaft with the “38” key than to spin a dirty wheel in high gear!

And the mounting blades? Today, city motorists spoiled by "tire fitting" have a vague idea of ​​installing tires themselves. But in order to remain independent in this, we recommend that you master simple working methods. There should be two mounting blades - this is more convenient and efficient.

What else comes across in the boot of a craftsman? For example, ordinary small scissors. It will come in handy when you need to cut something out of thin tin, foil and other materials that defy a knife - even the most remarkable. But a knife is needed! Just hardly worth buying an expensive brand. An excellent “working” knife, strong, wear-resistant, can be made from a blade of a mechanical hacksaw (P9 steel). Master craftsmen have known this for a very long time.

Often, files (completely round and flat), files, scrapers, sandpaper of various grain sizes, etc., quite legitimately fall into the trunk. So, the car owner has already “entered into repair as if in condition” (remember Zhvanetsky!) and not soon going to change the way of life. He always has in his trunk a hammer with a sharp serrated tooth, and a small drill, and a bench saw with a vice … There are all kinds of converters, putties, cans of paint and solvents, a spray gun and so on. But this is the topic of another conversation.

Since we have raised the issue of technical fluids, etc., we recall that a “fired” motorist usually carries. Firstly, a little (at least 0.5 l) oil, especially if the engine is old and sipes with appetite. Secondly, a bottle of brake fluid - may be urgently needed! "Tosol" is usually not taken - in extreme cases, and the water will come off … On a long journey, knowing the shortcomings of their battery, someone will capture half a liter of distilled water.

We recommend that you keep a jar of grease in the machine, for example, Litola-24. Sometimes a tube of sealant comes into place in the glove compartment. Finally, it happens that a needlewoman on the road needs glue (at least BF-2, Moment, PVA, etc.), an insulating tape or tape. A flat jar (for example, plastic from under a herring) with the traditional name "Greece" is good in the trunk. Why is that? Remember the classic: "Everything is in Greece!"

In such a jar, there really can be a lot - from screws, bolts and nuts to spare bulbs, ignition coils, capacitors, breaker contacts, candles, slider. Of course, you put here a probe (a bulb with two wires), and a piece of electrical wire, and a protective cambric, and something else.

Small things do not take up much space, but sometimes they are very necessary. Do not neglect it! You, for example, bespectacled. Do not forget to hide in the car (so as not to break) spare glasses …