CLUB OF CAR FANS
HISTORY OF ONE TIRE
This material was intended as ordinary reference information for readers. However, without a detailed account of the history of birth and evolution
"NIISHP-Rally" did not cost, especially since the tire turned 25 years old - an age worthy of respect.
In the early 70s, the Research Institute of the Tire Industry (NIISHP), on instructions from AvtoVAZ, developed and helped develop the first domestic radial tire IYA-170 with a textile breaker at the Yaroslavl Tire Plant. She immediately got on the tracks of sports competitions, where she gained popularity due to good traction on ice and packed snow. However, the "one hundred and seventy" was helpless in loose snow, on loose soils and in the mud. And then in the rally team of NIISHP they tried to create something new, taking as a basis the construction of the IYA-170. With a special electric knife, they cut the tread of “one hundred and seventy” into characteristic “checkers”.
The newcomer’s debut was stunned: in the very first race, the NIISHP rally racers did not leave any chances to competitors, having won all the ground special stages. Talked about the new tire, showers from the most famous racers and teams rained down. The electric knife could not cope with the ever-increasing volume of orders. Then the young engineers Alexander Krymsky and Viktor Ignatyev, supported by Alexander Varenko (in those years the head of the institute's racing team) and Alexander Skepner, the leading designer of passenger cars, decided to make a completely new tire. Underground (not now - in those years!) They made a mold and welded the first tire, which later received the official name "NIISHP-Rally" (HP). We must pay tribute to the leadership of the institute: calling the "underground" on the carpet and finding out the essence of the matter, it supported the initiative at its own peril and risk. And the tire, as they say, went, instantly becoming the subject of a huge deficit among athletes. However, a real explosion of popularity awaited HP with the onset of winter. Its capabilities were revealed at the once popular Moscow rally “Snezhinka” in 1976, where it turned out that no other domestic rubber was able to compete with the new product. After this, HP dimension 165R13 for a long time occupied a dominant position in motorsport.
Unfortunately, HP was not widespread at that time. The pilot plant produced several thousand tires per year. All of them dispersed in sports teams and "the right people."
However, HP frozen in the walls of the pilot production for a long time did not go dead. At the end of the 70s, a metal cord breaker appeared in its design and the model was finally certified, though already 175 / 70R13. The search began for the optimal composition of the rubber compound - in other words, the formulation. In the sports environment, a new addition to the combination of HP - “salty”. This is not a metaphor: salt was really added to the raw rubber from which the tire was cooked. Upon contact of the tire with snow, it was gradually washed out of the massif, forming the smallest roughness on the tread surface. Such tires were made by special order - first of all, to the leading racers of the country.
Another direction in development is the use of soft tread mixtures. Such tires were barely enough for one winter race, but they phenomenally “clung” to everything slippery. HP had a Shore rubber hardness of about 40 units - even today few can boast such an unusual recipe, and then most winter tires had a hardness of 52–58 units, and only the Czechs (the main competitors of our socialist camp riders) tried to bring their “Barum OR32” to a similar level.
Time passed, and with the beginning of perestroika, the era of commerce began in the life of HP.
HP molds got to the Bobruisk Tire Plant, which quickly mastered running products, adding the number 1 to the legendary name. HP 1651 / 160R13 dimension was assembled on a mass frame then MI-16 - it is clear, without any prescription frills. Then HP appeared in Voronezh, at the Ural Tire Plant … The new manufacturer, retaining the brand, forgot not only about the original formulations. The tire was assembled on any suitable frame, even on the diagonal.
The consumer, having passed the stage of enthusiasm for the “toothiness” of the unusual tire, began to notice shortcomings. HP turned out to be not only heavy, but also noisy, vibro-loaded. Yes, and in the management of the tire has ceased to correspond to the stories of "experienced".
At the institute, however, they did not forget about the tire. In the late 70s, work on HP was led by Nina Ilyinichna Ryabova. Then appeared HP2 and HP5 - both 175 / 70R14. According to ideology, the first tire completely repeated its “combat” predecessors, but the HP5 came out with a slightly modified tread, becoming closer to the demands of the ordinary consumer. In extreme modes, she could not compete with racing tires, but was more comfortable in operation. Over the years, the HP5 family has grown, incorporating the main "foreign" and even "Niva" sizes.
In 1996, a new winter tire НР2000 of dimension 175 / 70R13 appeared, oriented mainly to the mass consumer. Engineers tried to smooth out the shortcomings of the sports tire as much as possible, but at the same time retained the fighting character inherent in the whole family. The novelty was originally prepared for wide circulation and today is available in 13-, 14- and 15-inch variants.