KAMAZ CHAMPION DAKAR
What is it, truck number 1 in the world of rally raids?
The fate of all the second is to swallow other people's dust. And there are two ways to avoid it: hopelessly lag behind and finish when the dust behind the leader and the foam of victorious champagne have settled down, or … come first.
For ten years of participation in rally marathons, our KamAZ trucks made us talk about ourselves as the most likely candidates for gold in any race with their participation. Gone are the days when they looked at the KamAZ crews as if they were a yard team, as if it had appeared among the stars of world motorsport.
Of course, it is impossible to get ahead of eminent rivals in a production car: you need a special "combat" shell, originally designed and aimed at technical superiority and victory. The creation of such a machine is a laborious undertaking, requiring vast experience, school and … money.
In reality, this became possible in 1993, when the team of the team was a large Moscow AOOT Master. The fruits of the community have ripened very soon - in two years, KAMAZ-MASTER becomes the winner of the rally “Paris - Moscow - Beijing-95”, taking all three steps of the podium.
In January 1996, for the first time in the 18-year history of the Paris-Dakar race, the Russian crew of Viktor Moskovsky became a prize winner and uncorked a bottle of traditional champagne, and in August, the crews of Vladimir Chagin and Firdaus Kabirov took first and second places in the Master Rally 96 and for the first time in the history of domestic motorsport, they are winning the World Cup in truck racing.
The same crews took first and third places in the individual competition in the rally "Paris - Dakar - Cairo 2000" and the first place in the team.
Behind these victories, in addition to the skill and will of the crews, the coordinated work of the whole team, are, of course, the reliability and perfection of cars.
The car created for the race is significantly different from its serial counterpart. Of course, the requirements here are different - the price of a car, its efficiency, durability, and load capacity are fading into the background. Its priorities are speed, throttle response, and the ability to work continuously and continuously with extreme loads, so that the crew remains alive and well.
ENGINE. The first sports KamAZ trucks installed serial engines KamAZ-7403, boosted to 280 liters. with. increase in fuel supply and corresponding adjustment of the turbocharger.
Further forcing took place in two stages. The first is the achievement of 430 hp. with maximum use of serial parts and the involvement of imported components. The second is the manufacture of an engine of 500 liters. with. with a significant change in design, parts and components, including basic. These engines, KamAZ-7482, were very successful and still stand on the “technicals” serving the race, but their power has reached the limit. More than 500 liters. with. impossible to get from them. Other engines are already installed on modern machines - 7E846 manufactured by the Yaroslavl and Tutaevsky plants. According to the chief engine driver of the team Mikhail Myasoedov, the motors were very successful. With a capacity of 830 liters. S., they are very unpretentious and during the last "Dakar" never refused.
TRANSMISSION. To transmit such high power and torque (290 kgf.m) to domestic gearboxes, alas, is not yet within the power. The choice was stopped on a semi-automatic 16-speed gearbox in a block with a razdatka of the German company ZF and clutch "Sachs". Two radiators are installed on the sides of the machine to cool the fluid coupling oil. Each is blown by its 1 kW electric fan. In the future, they intend to abandon the "semiautomatic device" - it is still more reliable without it.
Large suspension moves (400 mm) required the installation of cardan shafts, allowing for appropriate angles of axial fracture. GWB joints (Germany), working with angles up to 35 °, meet such stringent requirements. A similar hinge was developed in the STC of the plant and is planned for implementation in production.
Driving bridges - own design. Beams - serial, reinforced from below with additional stiffeners. Until recently, gearboxes did not differ much from the standard ones, but with an increase in engine power of more than 500 liters. with. their strength has become insufficient. On a KamAZ-49252 car, partially unified with KrAZ parts appeared. In a welded steel case, it can withstand 400 kgf.m.
WHEELS - disk with removable side and split lock rings and toroidal landing regiments. The design of the aluminum disk allows you to replace the tire without removing the wheel from the hub. Tires - radial tubeless "Michelin", dimension 14.00R20 with adjustable pressure from 1 to 5 atm. Michelin is also because a representative of the company is constantly located at Dakar, who is ready to consider complaints on the spot without delay. At first, to complete the rally KamAZ trucks, tires were ordered with a tread block half as high as the standard - such a tire heats less at high speeds. However, providing some gain in speed, it is less resistant to stones on the track, it is easier to break through, and the time conquered is spent on frequent wheel changes. In the future, it was decided to abandon such modernization.
Huge tubeless tires required sealed collapsible rims, so the outer bead ring was mounted on a rim with three rubber o-rings.
SUSPENSION. Perhaps she gets the most in racing. To ensure that the car, moving off-road at the speed of a light aircraft (140–160 km / h is a common thing), does not fall apart on the go, the closest attention is paid to the suspension's energy consumption. Nine-leaf springs with a length of 1800 mm, the same for both bridges, work complete with hydropneumatic struts with built-in shock absorbers. This decision was not immediately reached. Many options were tried, among which there were even springs from the header of the combine, until they looked for suitable racks on an armored personnel carrier. They were introduced into the design. Due to the progressive characteristic of gas compression (pressure 40–1000 kgf / cm2), breakdowns to the buffer are practically excluded. Each such combined spring is capable of perceiving a load of up to 10 tons, that is, if necessary, you can land after the jump and on one wheel.
And so that under load the bridge does not spin on long leaf springs and does not bring the cardan joints to exorbitant bending angles, its kinematics is provided by reactive rods with rubber-metal joints at the ends.
FRAME. It is designed from blanks of serial spars connected by powerful tubular cross members. However, in the future, in order to increase rigidity, it is planned to strengthen it with a continuous membrane that closes the entire power circuit.
Now that the design of the champion car is more or less clear, it's time to try on the sensations that the crew experiences during the race.
The interior of the cabin, of course, is significantly different from the serial. A tubular roll cage frames it from the inside around the perimeter and partially blocks the doorways. However, they do not pay attention to this inconvenience - only an emergency stop can force one to get out of the car on the highway. But in case of a possible accident, the frame does not allow the cab to deform.
Instead of the standard, special Sparko sports seats are installed, selected for each crew member. It is impossible otherwise, because with such shaking it is not so easy to stay in the saddle. The riders are fixed with wide safety belts with soft pads on the straps. The experience of the driver in the race can be judged by the white salty stains on the belts.
For the legs of the navigator and the mechanic there are special support platforms, struts are fastened to the safety arches under the ceiling - if the windshield is cracked from an accidental stone, they are inserted from the inside, between the front panel and the ceiling so that the oncoming air pressure does not push it into the cabin. At night, in the parking lot, the glass, of course, will be replaced, but every second is on the road.
Under the supervision of the champion of Dakar, Vladimir Chagin, I sit behind the wheel of a ten-ton monster, and we get out onto a deserted suburban highway. The reaction of the car to gas to the floor should be immediate - KamAZ breaks down, as if from a chain. The rare cars that have just overtaken us now flash on the right in the opposite direction. What is their pathetic 100 against our 170! The intensity of acceleration is the same as in Samara with an engine of 1500, but there are much more impressions. Suddenly light and obedient by cargo standards, KAMAZ perfectly holds the road and instantly responds to any movement by the wheel. Snow-covered asphalt is under the wheels, and the car goes as if on rails. However, I somehow don’t want to increase the speed anymore - as witters write on the backsides, if you go fast, they will slowly carry it.
We turn on a hummocky wasteland overgrown with a rare shrub, in conditions close to combat. A half-meter layer of snow can hide under it any surprises in the form of a concrete block forgotten by the builders or a log frozen into the ground. Slowly we cut two trial circles, capturing the slope and medium-sized relief hillocks. The off-road truck is quite confident, without any tendency to bury - reduced tire pressure affects. Now, according to explored, you can drive and as it should.
Leaving behind a cloud of snow, KamAZ seems to barely touch the wheels of the earth. According to the habit that has developed over the years, after such jumps, you get close and wait for a strong blow of the frame on the bridges. But the suspension surprisingly gently puts the car on the ground, and never once worked until it stops. To stay "in the saddle" help seat belts. Without them, it seems quite possible to leave the cabin through the windshield.
On the hills, the helpful box semiautomatic immediately switches down the gear, it is only necessary to push the gas to the floor - kick-down saves a second or two on manual shifting. The car, spurred by a powerful engine, literally takes off on the rise.
Alas, the language is poor in order to convey all the impressions gained at the wheel of a KamAZ special purpose. You need to feel them yourself. In extreme cases - see the car in action.
Sports equipment in the world is constantly being improved. Of course, people at KamAZ also don’t rest on their laurels, and it’s quite possible that by the next main race of the year “Dakar-2001” not quite the trucks that we talked about will go to the start.
Payload kg 4000
The mass of the equipped car, kg 10 000
Distribution of load on the road from the mass
curb (gross weight) a / m, kg:
through the front axle 5500 (7000)
through the rear axle 4500 (7000)
Maximum speed, km / h 180
The maximum overcome rise, % (degrees) 61 (32)
The overcome vertical wall, m 0, 55
Permissible roll when moving along a slope, at least 22 °
Acceleration time of the equipped vehicle, s:
up to a speed of 60 km / h 6.5
up to a speed of 100 km / h 15
from 60 … 120 km / h 24
on the way 400 m 20.0
on the way 1000 m 35
Control fuel consumption per 100 km
with a full load and a speed of 60 km / h, l 30
Estimated fuel consumption per 100 km
in extreme conditions, l 82–100
Cruising range, km 1000
Depth of ford, m 1.7
Braking distance at a speed of 40 km / h, m 17.2
The smallest turning radius on the track
front outer wheel, not more than, m 11
Outside turning radius on the front buffer, m 11.8
Model - 7E846, diesel, four-stroke, V-shaped, eight-cylinder, turbocharged and direct fuel injection.
Excess boost pressure, kgf / cm2 2
Bore and stroke, mm 140х140
Working volume, l 17, 24
Weight, kg 1380
Rated power, h.p. 830 at 2500 rpm
Maximum torque, kgf.m 290 at 1400 rpm
Minimum specific fuel consumption, g / l. s … h 155
The number of valves in the cylinder 4
Air cleaners (with two paper
filter elements in each) 2
Mufflers 2 (direct-flow)
Lubrication system - mixed, with wet sump. Oil cooling in a water-oil heat exchanger
Liquid, closed type. The radiator of the company "Ber" is tubular and tape, with a fan casing and an expansion tank. Thermal regulation of the engine - thermostat and viscous fan clutch. The diameter of the fan is 720 mm. Air-to-air charge air intercooler, Ber radiator
Clutch - dry two-disk company "Saks", with cylindrical pressure springs. Driven discs with a diameter of 380 mm. Clutch Drive - Hydropneumatic
Transmission - in a block with a transfer case, 16S220A from ZF, hydromechanical 16-speed with synchronizers in all gears
Cardan drive - from 4 cardan shafts with crosses on needle bearings. Front axle drive with three driveshafts with outboard bearings
Bridges are both leading. The main gears are central doubles with bevel circular teeth and helical helical gears. The final drive ratio is 3.55. Differential conical with 4 satellites, with forced locking. The axle shafts are completely unloaded.
Suspension - front and rear - dependent, each on 2 longitudinal semi-elliptic springs, working in conjunction with 4 hydropneumatic springs (struts) with built-in shock absorbers, with a longitudinal reaction rod.
The steering gear is ZF 8098. The gear ratio is 18.3. Steering shaft with two joints of equal angular speeds. Power Steering Pump - ZF 7674
Service brake system - two-wire, with separate pneumatic
water to the front and rear axles. Brakes of all wheels - drum, with inner pads
Fuel tank capacity, l 2 by 420
Engine cooling system, l 40
Engine lubrication system, l 40
Gear housing, l 21
Carter front and rear axles, l 8.5