How much is a ton?


The cost of transportation is determined not only by the carrying capacity, but also by the initial price, the convenience of working behind the wheel and in the cargo compartment, and the reliability of a commercial vehicle.


Once, hiring a laborer, the owner judged his ability to work

by appetite. Eats a lot - will cope with any business. The approach to a worker-car is completely different: a good appetite will not please, but upset the owner.

A serious truck choice involves taking into account many factors - from price and taxes to maintainability, ease of handling and loading. Each of them, evaluated objectively, affects the efficiency of transportation. So we’ll try to determine: which of the trucks, depending on the nature of the work performed, is more profitable in the city?

It would seem that the first answer: the one that is more lucky. However, the van is rarely loaded to its full mass - sometimes the load is determined by the volume of luggage, and sometimes simply by the customer. When working in a metropolis, with frequent stops, turns on the "heels", loading other arguments come to the fore: efficiency, maneuverability, ease of work in the cargo compartment. Maybe it’s cheaper to make a couple of walkers on a light pickup truck than to drive a hefty but underloaded wagon …

We took 1 tonne as a “loading unit”. From this "stove" you can dance, wondering the profitability of the machine. Our “experimental” are small-tonnage vehicles capable of transporting from 600 to 2500 kilograms: VIS-2345 - a van from Tolyatti on the basis of the “five”, Nizhny Novgorod “Sobol” and “Gazelle”, finally, the Zilovsky “Bychok” (Table 1). Each of the “ungulates” was loaded with a ton of cargo, and the “Sable” and the small VIS were received at half a ton (in accordance with the carrying capacity). We considered such a choice - 1000 and 500 kilograms as a kind of universal cargo: “neither yours nor ours” - nobody fully used the carrying capacity, that is, they did not have a clear handicap.

The test included two routes along the roads of the Dmitrov Autopolygon, where all cars had equal conditions. The first race of approximately 35 kilometers is an imitation of measured urban traffic (in Moscow they drive along the outskirts where there are no protracted traffic jams); the second, with a length of nearly 60 km, is “suburban”, like a shoulder from a large city to the nearest regional center. These "walkers" served as the basis for our calculations. For completeness of impressions, we spun around in the center of the capital.


VIS-2345. It would seem that what else can be done from the familiarly painful "five"? It turns out - a small, okay truck. Aluminum sides and a plastic cap are not afraid of corrosion. True, loading a low car is not very convenient - you have to push the luggage on the floor or crawl in the van on your lap, but even with “useful” 500 kg the car shows enviable speed and economy. It is controlled as usual "Lada", of course, adjusted for loading. But the steering inherited from the "classics" in combination with a long (longer than that of the "Sable") base forces us to develop the muscles of the arms and the eye when maneuvering in a narrow lane. There is all hope for mirrors - albeit a little rough, but moderately large and with flat glasses, which is convenient for maneuvers. By the way, you can get rid of the whistle that they publish after 60 km / h by pasting the gaps in the joints of the bracket with tape.

The truck exhaust system seemed unsuccessful. On a loaded car, bumps such as the speed bump threatened to incapacitate the hanging muffler. But in general, VIS is a good option for a private trader serving two or three stalls. A car can spend the night in an ordinary garage, spare parts and repairs are inexpensive and are available even away from large cities.

GAZ 2752 "Sable." Imagine that the load is light but voluminous (bread or cigarettes). At the very time - "fur" Nizhny Novgorod. The van is tall enough to move in it, slightly bowing its head, even with boxes-bags. Of the amenities - a side door of the cargo compartment.

Maneuverability is better than VIS. To the delight of city carriers - power steering (if it weren’t leaking!). A high cargo landing helps to calculate the traffic situation several moves ahead - which means that it is less likely to stop, saving fuel.

Of course, the sixteen-valve ZMZ-4063 makes the car quite frisky and economical. However, the benefits of Sable must be paid. And not only during the purchase, but also during operation, if you have to purchase more expensive parts.

GAZ-2705 "Gazelle". Its disadvantages, especially noticeable against the background of the youngest - "Sable", compensate for the large payload and large volume. Even without a power steering, spinning in the alleys on a long car is easy. The outdated 402nd motor, of course, is less powerful and more voracious than the 406th, but the asset has an enviable high-torque, low price, and developed service. And most importantly, if the usual load of your van is about a ton, the unpretentious Gazelle is beyond competition.

ZIL-5301 ON “Bull-calf”. The engine inherited from the tractor pulls a bulky car well. However, management requires strong hands and patience. Moscow traffic jams are able to exhaust the driver. The programs, especially the first one (it must be turned on with a courageous blow), are too “short”. In the city, you have to work with the box lever more often than on the other machines we tested. From the center of the capital, “Bychok” asks for the city, for grazing along the highway. And there it annoys with noise and an uncomfortable, short-backed seat.

Getting out of the cab is uncomfortable - the staircase is too shifted inward. A tall van requires either a flyover or a forklift. In the absence of their driver is forced to jump with the goods up and down, up and down. The plant did not seem to think at all how to facilitate this process - there are not even any steps on the Goby. Another cargo door would not interfere with the van - on the side.

ZIL maneuvers not bad, but the steering wheel with an amplifier is almost heavier than the Gazelle without it. A bulky car would be very handy overall "mustache", indicating the invisible hood and bumper. At the same time, a large carrying capacity, a solid volume combined with a flat, wheel-less niche floor and a diesel engine, albeit poorly friends with the transmission, are undoubted advantages of ZIL.

If you are firmly convinced that you will always load more than 1.5 tons, decide on the “Goby” - a sort of trunk three-ton. But do not forget about the price of the car and spare parts, figure out where your truck will spend the night.


In the table. 3 summarizes the results of trips. At the top - in order, but not in importance - the average speed on the route. Even in urban mode (acceleration to 60 km / h - stop - acceleration again and so on), it turned out to be quite high for all test participants at the test site. In any case, in the center of Moscow such a result is achievable except on weekends. The VIS, of course, turned out to be the fastest, but half-empty ZIL unexpectedly came in second place - however, at the cost of great efforts by the driver. However, average speed is far from the most important indicator: in a dense city stream, everyone will go the same way. The approximately 10 percent difference between the pickup leader and the Gazelle outsider will only affect the free road. By the way, the gain of the “Bull-calf” can be eaten up by the loading and unloading time - the same 40 cast-iron ingots in the Gazelle fit twice as fast!

Outside the city, the GAZ lag will be noticeable in a torn mode: with stops at intersections, frequent overtaking. Even, about 70–80 km / h, all subjects equally well manage.

The comment is brief on fuel consumption: everyone needs a diesel! True, it still needs to be correctly adapted to the car (or vice versa), which the Zilovites could not do. The price of playfulness “Goby” is, in our opinion, excessive diesel fuel consumption in the city.

And now we calculate the costs - for starters, per kilometer. Again, VIS comes forward, but, recall, it carries only 500 kilograms. The cars ranged in height - followed by a pair of GAZ trucks, the closing one - ZIL. On the highway, he changes with the Gazelle.

Most importantly, the price we paid to transport 1 ton per 1 kilometer (bottom line of the table). It became cheaper to transport on machines with a higher carrying capacity. But do not make hasty conclusions - at one time they already broke firewood with large, but unnecessary 5-10 tons. Compare VIS and “Goby” in the city - with a fourfold difference in carrying capacity, costs differ by only one tenth! For example: taking into account the human factor, we would choose a pickup truck - it pains you to get tired of ZIL in the city (health is more expensive!). With a cargo weight of about a ton, the Gazelle lorry is more profitable than all - with its seemingly gluttony! The general conclusion is that you need to choose a truck, first of all, for the most frequently transported cargo. The ideal is the coincidence or multiplicity of carrying capacity and mass of goods.

By the way, in the same "Goby", and other representatives of the auto-fauna, appetites do not change too much with an increase in the mass of the load. Returning to the penultimate line, you can figure out how much you will have to pay for the transportation of 2 tons, 700 or 300 kilograms … Try to carry half a ton to the Gazelle or Bychka - fly into the tube. Exhaust

Of course, when calculating the efficiency of transportation, we must take into account much more factors than we could afford during a brief test. Nevertheless, we determined the starting point - the approximate price of a ton-kilometer. You will find some other parameters in the tables. Having estimated your specific transportation conditions, you can answer the question posed at the beginning: how much will it cost … a ton?

The locks of the sides of the VIS-2345 are inconvenient - the gap between the handle and the wall is small. To lock the cargo compartment, you have to separately - with your fist - coax the plastic cover.

Loading "Gazelle" - forty doors were stacked in two doors in 5 minutes.

The dimensions of the cargo compartments VIS-2345 (above), "Gazelles" (in brackets are the values ​​for "Sable"), "Goby".

Here in such a T-shaped corridor we evaluated the maneuverability of the trucks. From the first time only “Sable” and “Gazelle” got there, the rest require two tricks. Turning radii measured: 6.9 m (VIS), 5.15 m (Sable), 6.5 m (Gazelle), 6.7 m (ZIL).

Photo by Vladimir KNYAZEV