AUSTRIAN WITH NIZHNY NOVGOROD
GAZ bought a license for a diesel engine from the Austrian company Steyr - this has been known for a long time. GAZ gradually collects such engines and equips them with experienced cars - we wrote about this. GAZ has launched the production of diesel cars in small series - it is already more interesting. Well, and the latest news - we bought such a car!
DO NOT REACH THE AMERICANS …
In the editorial fleet not so long ago an exotic car started up - the VAZ 2104 5 with a diesel engine. So that he was not bored, they decided to find a "partner". They contacted GAZ without much hope: we would have a station wagon with Steyr. You are welcome! Although the Volga diesel engine is not yet represented on the domestic market - such machines are made … for export to Latin America. One of them did not go overseas and settled in her homeland. More precisely, in the editorial office “At the wheel”.
The Volga itself (as, in general, the Quartet) is of little interest to us. Everything seems to be said about these well-deserved cars, and more than once. The main interest, of course, in new motors. VAZs with Barnaul diesel engines are already on sale, and nobody canceled plans for the appearance of the Austrian-Nizhny Novgorod diesel engine in the domestic market. But for acquaintance, a few lines will still be dedicated to the car.
The diesel Volga is outwardly absolutely indistinguishable from the gasoline, even its own nameplate is not yet available. The number 600 has been added to the car index: therefore, the GAZ 3102 21–600 diesel station wagon. The main difference, of course, under the hood is the turbocharged four-cylinder diesel model GAZ-560. The new engine through the original clutch housing is docked with a five-speed "Volgovskaya" gearbox - the usual one. Still - a battery of increased capacity and a modified gear ratio of the main pair.
On the road from Nizhny to Moscow, the car seemed rather frisky, not too gluttonous, but relatively noisy. A detailed story about the car will appear a little later, when different impressions and ratings accumulate.
We will use the purchase of a diesel car as an occasion to talk about a new engine, more precisely, about the prospects for its production.
SECOND LIFE OF STYRA
License purchased, time has passed - what has been done? And here is what. A production room has been allocated for the new engine - one of the workshops of the rear axle factory. Now the workshop is under reconstruction: old equipment is being exported, new equipment is being installed. The devastation accompanying any repair, scattered foundations … However, part of the workshop has already been mastered. To determine where diesel is already being made and where not yet, simply by looking at the roof. In parallel with the installation of new equipment, the premises are being renovated, so that the spans over the newly mounted lines are painted with fresh paint. Such bright spots occupy almost a third of the workshop. What are they doing here? How much did Steyr become GAZ, what parts are domestic in it, and which are purchased?
I was glad that there are already a lot of domestic in the motor. GAZ makes crankshafts and camshafts. For this, equipment is used that was originally intended for air-cooled diesels (the saga of the 80s), the production of which was curtailed without really mastering it. The color casting workshop supplies aluminum castings: all body parts and covers, except for the cast-iron block, are made in Russia. The casting is processed at related enterprises. The cylinder block is still being bought in Germany, but in the near future they will start casting on GAZ. The processing of the block is more complicated: rather complicated specialized equipment is required. Now they are determining who will be able to deliver it. There is an offer from both domestic enterprises and foreigners.
In addition to the unit, they remain imported: a connecting rod and piston group, fuel equipment, electrical equipment, engine controls, a turbocompressor. By the way, a joint venture has been set up to produce the latter. So the unit must also receive "Russian citizenship." Of course, parts and components of foreign production are good, but too expensive. Today, a car with a GAZ-560 diesel engine is approximately 80, 000 rubles more expensive than a similar one with the “406th” engine. In order to sell a new engine in Russia, it is necessary to reduce the price, which means mastering the production of most components.
The motors are assembled on a fast-track basis: each worker performs a group of operations - under personal responsibility. Already not piece production, but not yet a conveyor. All assembled engines undergo a fairly long run-in at the stand. There are no complaints about the quality yet, but the volumes of output are minimal. And what will happen when the motor starts to flow? Specialists of the plant say that control will be tight. God grant! It is also encouraging that “Steyr” is involved in the selection of suppliers, cutting off the options that are advantageous, but not perfect enough from a technical point of view.
The first to "Russify" the four-cylinder "Austrian". Following it, it is planned to master six- and five-cylinder diesel engines. The Quartet will go to the Volga, the sables and the gazelles, the Five to promising all-terrain vehicles, the pickups, and the Six to trucks.
MATTER OF HABIT
The GAZ-560 engine (let’s call it that, it’s already completely Russified) and many people are skeptical about the plans for its production at the GAZ: they say whether such an unusual design full of electronics is needed, dear. But more recently, they were just as skeptical about petrol injection engines. And now nothing - they’re used to it.
The management of GAZ, with its inherent persistence, is driving the design of a new engine. After all, the factory that produces trucks of various classes, now simply can not help but have a diesel engine. As for a passenger diesel, even with a rather wary attitude towards it by Russian motorists (well, we didn’t have one!), The engine will surely find its buyer. Under two conditions: reasonable price and high reliability.
Photo by Alexander POLUNIN
"VOLGA" WITH THE GAZ-560 ENGINE
Engine type four-cylinder, in-line, diesel, with
direct injection and turbocharging
Bore x stroke, mm 85x94
Displacement, sms 2134
Power, kW / l. with. 70/95
at rpm 3800
Maximum torque, N.m 200
at rpm 2000
Compression ratio 20.5
Minimum specific fuel consumption, g / kW.h 220 ± 5%
Engine weight (with flywheel, starter, alternator), kg 200
Maximum speed, km / h 150 *
Control fuel consumption, l / 100 km:
at 90 km / h 7.3 *