DUBLERS PREPARE ROLE
In the next decade, “doubles” should appear at the metropolitan avenues and highways leading to the Moscow Ring Road. Will it come true?
TUBE AFTER MOSCOW
“One of the most serious ulcers in the large capitals of European, Asian and American countries is the presence of slums, where millions of impoverished workers are doomed to living and slow painful death. The merit of Moscow is that it completely eliminated these slums … "
This was stated by I.V. Stalin, signing in 1935 the first (Stalin) master plan for the reconstruction of Moscow. He was good! With one stroke of a pen, he could cut a new avenue through the historical center - and would some scientists, architects or environmentalists try to object - where would they then be looking for? The slums, however, did not decrease then. Moreover, in spite of revolutionary decisiveness, in the Soviet times the streets were underrated and under-built - and with the advent of a new historical era, Moscow almost became one enormous traffic jam.
Here's what Alexander Borisov, the head of the traffic police department of the capital’s traffic police, told about the features of the capital’s automobile traffic. More than 3.5 million cars move daily on Moscow roads (the growth rate in the 90s exceeded the pace of the 80s by 5.5 times!), The length of the city’s road network is 4718 kilometers, including 1275 of the main line. in the capital is estimated at 300-400 kilometers! In the central part of the city, almost all the streets have already exhausted their capacity or are working at its limit. And the annular and transverse ligaments that unload the center make up only 35–40% of the city’s needs. That is why the beginning of the construction of the third transport ring has become an urgent need. It and only it will be able to ensure the redistribution of traffic flows along the radial highways and will significantly relieve the Garden Ring and the center of the capital from transit traffic.
But in the new general plan of Moscow (last year it was adopted by the city government and approved by the city council) there are other decisions that are no less important for Muscovites and guests of the capital traveling by car. Some of them are already being embodied in bridges, tunnels and kilometers of roads, while others still exist on paper. We asked to tell about them Yuri Vasilyevich Korotkov, chief engineer of the Research Institute of the General Plan of Moscow.
- The old general plan for the development of the capital in 1971 was designed for the level of 150 cars per 1000 inhabitants, the new one for 300-350 cars. Therefore, we were faced with the task of increasing the density of the road network by 1.5–2 times. Now in the areas of reconstruction of five-story buildings, we are trying to break through local, “residential” streets so that the car can move freely around the microdistrict. But not only that.
Every resident of Moscow has long felt on himself (especially on Friday and Sunday evenings!) How overloaded all the avenues and highways leading to the Moscow Ring Road (MKAD). The question of building backup roads has long been a question, such work was envisaged in the past general plan, but … Now, as they say, there is nowhere to put off. And in the new general plan the construction of understudies is defined in almost all radial directions. They will pass from MKAD to the third ring, and the construction of highways will go mainly along the lines of railways and industrial zones, in other words, through free territories. And this greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of construction.
WHAT WHERE WHEN
Let's start with the future understudy of Kutuzovsky Prospekt and Mozhayskoye Shosse, which does not yet have a proper name (number 9 on our map). It will begin as an offshoot of the Minsk highway, in the region of the city of Odintsovo near Moscow, and enter the capital near the Troekurovsky cemetery (the denouement is ready). Then it will stretch along the exclusion zone of the Kiev direction of the Moscow Railway and exit on Kutuzovsky at the intersection with the third ring.
The doubler will certainly be at the Warsaw highway, and the plan provides for the construction of not even one, but two - eastern (6) and western (7). Western, among other things, provides the opportunity for direct entry into the city for residents of the Moscow districts of North and South Butovo, but in any case it should pass along the outskirts of Bitsevsky forest park, which is opposed by environmental and some other public organizations. Currently, the development of this project has been temporarily stopped, and sooner or later they will have to return to it - an area with a population of more than 200 thousand people (this is today!) Cannot normally exist without direct entry into the city.
So far, the main efforts of designers and builders are concentrated on the eastern understudy of Warsaw. It will pass along the canvas of the Paveletskaya railway, and then through the industrial zone will exit to the third ring in the vicinity of Bolshaya Tula Street. In addition, in the near future, builders will finally pass the roundabout at the intersection of the Moscow Ring Road and Lipetsk Street, and part of the transport will go to Moscow along this route. True, this road so far rests on Kavkazsky Boulevard, but, most likely, it will soon continue to Kantemirovskaya Street, and then to the section of the fifth ring conceived for the future (5).
Now several projects of the understudy of Volgograd and Ryazan Avenues are being developed; True, again, not without big problems. Partially, the road must pass through the territory of the Kuzminsky park, and architects rack their brains to do this with minimal damage to the green massif. Environmentalists oppose this track in general. Nevertheless, they are already actively working on the so-called southern option (4): the understudy will begin at the Moscow Ring Road, near the village of Besedy and will go to the third ring in the area of Sharikopodshipnikovskaya Street. A new avenue is being planned north of Ryazanka, which will connect the Zhulebino and Novo-Kosino microdistricts (3) with the city - it will run along the canvas of the Ryazan Railway. But the project turns out to be very complicated and expensive - the road must inevitably go through the gutters going to the Lyubertsy aeration station. And yet, the first sections of the new highway are already starting to be built.
Unfortunately, there will be no new motorways between Ryazan Avenue and Yaroslavsky Highway - this is a very complicated residential and industrial development. In addition, in the area of Izmailovsky Park and the Losiny Ostrov National Park, environmentalists and the public will inevitably stand in the way of the builders.
The understudy of the Yaroslavl highway (1), according to the plan, will again pass along the same direction of the Moscow Railway. In addition, architects propose to partially relieve Yaroslavka by expanding the Ostashkovskoye highway and Yenisei street. There will be no understudy near Dmitrovskoye Shosse until it will inevitably have to pass through the territory of reserves and reserves, and this is unacceptable here.
An understudy is being prepared for the Leningradskoye Shosse (13). From the new International Highway, it bypasses Khimki from the east (a section is already under construction) and goes to the Moscow Ring Road at the intersection with Dybenko Street, and then through Khovrino, along the Oktyabrskaya Railway, gets to the third ring. Another, “urban” understudy of Leningradka goes through the streets of Lavochkin and Klara Zetkin. With the introduction of a multi-level interchange at the intersection of the Volokolamsk Highway and the Moscow Canal, traffic jams at the entrance to the city can also be passed through Kurkino (12) and Svobody Street. In the near future they plan to connect it with a new bridge (11) with Zhivopisnaya street and Nizhny Mnevniki.
There is a lot of controversy surrounding the fate of the projected Krasnopresnensky Avenue (10). A small section - from small (2) to large (8) third rings - is already under construction. And then no option has yet been found how to lay a new avenue through Serebryany Bor (or Krylatskoye?) And where to give it access to the Moscow Ring Road.
In addition to radial directions-understudies, in the bowels of the Research Institute of the general plan, a project is being developed for another inner-city ring highway - the fifth ring. Recall that the first ring is Boulevard, the second is Sadovoe, the third is under construction, and part of the fourth, it turns out, already exists (Koroleva Street, Rostokinsky and Krasnobogatyrsky Driveways in the north; Minsk Street, Lomonosovsky and Nakhimovsky Prospects in the west and south). Soon, the first arc of the fifth ring will appear in the south (in the area of the fork of the Warsaw and Kashirsky highways). In a word, the city is finally developing, albeit a complex, but modern system capable of ensuring the distribution of traffic flows in the capital.
PLAN - NOT A DOGMA …
So, the plans of the Moscow government are huge. And all of us, who are driving, as they say, vote “yes” with both hands. And also - with your own money, because the new roads of Moscow (like the new roads of the Kuban, Siberia, the Far East - further everywhere) are built on the money of the Federal Road Fund, where each of us honestly contributes. Everything would be fine, but with the adoption of the new Tax Code, the fund’s cash flows can partially change direction and somewhat dry up (ZR has already written about this many times). The forecast for Moscow in this sense is the saddest: financing of road construction can be reduced by half, and its terms will be extended by half, respectively.