TEXT / MIKHAIL GZOVSKY
Under the general concept of “fuel injection”, to which many of our motorists prefer the not entirely correct “injector” (although this is not the whole system, but only an injector), there are a lot of fuel supply schemes. The terms designating them have multiplied even more.
The pioneer's place of honor was taken by the so-called single-point fuel injection, which is commonly called central in Russian publications. As you might guess, in this scheme, fuel is supplied by only one nozzle, which is located above the throttle valve in the intake manifold. Many motorists, often not without justification, consider single-point injection the most reliable - because the fewer nodes and the simpler the design, the fewer reasons for failure. But single-point injection, especially its earlier versions with a mechanical nozzle drive, is yesterday’s, if not the day before yesterday’s engine building.
In an effort to adjust the motors to more stringent environmental requirements, the designers developed a scheme: each cylinder received its own nozzle in the intake tract. This is how multipoint fuel injection was born. The system has become more complicated, but, most importantly, the fuel supply and, accordingly, the combustion process can be controlled more precisely. By analogy with the central one, it is more logical to call such an injection distributed.
Today, the latest version - direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber, and not into the intake manifold, as it was before, is becoming more widespread. Often this type is called direct, but perhaps this is not the best definition: how do you order to name the previous types in this case? Curved injection?
Mitsubishi's patented direct injection scheme in 1997 allows the engine to run on an extremely lean mixture, which ensures low fuel consumption and low exhaust toxicity. Direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber is the most promising, although it requires the use of extremely high-quality fuel without impurities of not only lead, but also sulfur.
IN ONE BOTTLE
Do you think it is possible to buy a car air conditioner for 300 rubles? "Nonsense!" - Many will answer. It turns out that this is quite possible, but with the caveat that we are talking about metal conditioners - chemical preparations for engines, designed, according to the developers, to extend his life. Why is an air cooling unit and a substance in a bottle the same name? Everything is very simple: one of the meanings of the verb “to condition” is to bring it into conformity with certain conditions or requirements. And what is at stake, about the air or the condition of the engine - a topic for another discussion.
The name metal conditioner, as well as the metal modifier, is just fashionable and beautiful overseas synonyms, maybe a “plebeian” one, but with a much more capacious concept of additive. Conventionally, they can be divided into three main groups according to the principle of action.
The first - additives - "resuscitators" or metal-clad - contain particles of soft metals - lead, tin, copper or silver, - leveling the risks on the cylinder mirror. The second type of additives changes the metal itself, entering into physico-chemical interaction with it, and the third forms a thin layer of “slippery” graphite, teflon or molybdenum disulfide on the friction surfaces.