Anonim

EQUIPMENT

/ TEST "REPAIR"

RUN … UNDER THE HOOD

DON'T YOU DISTURB?

TEXT / IGOR TVERDUNOV, ANTON CHUYKIN

A pair of domestic diesel station wagons ran as many as 130 thousand kilometers. True, for two: on the account of VAZ 2104 5 - 70 thousand, the “Volga” has less, 60 thousand. Our diesels are independent creatures, everyone lives their own lives. But about once a quarter there comes a period (who said “mating”?), When they get together in a small flock to continue the “Four Hands” game with the “Taxi-Motor” and then tie up the southern “Resort Romance” (ZR, 2001, No. 1, 4, 9).

Violent youth, hard work, novels, again, all this is not in vain. Today we are not going anywhere. Today we will drive the cars to the "doctor" for examination. Probably, there were no white spots left in Zhiguli and Volga, but if the diesel was bored … This has already happened - nothing good, I must tell you. We will share not only our own repair experience, but also listen to specialists. After all, prevention is the key to health!

GAZ-560

The only unit that had to be dismantled twice is the pump. The first time it flowed due to factory defects in the warranty period (respectively, the repair did not affect the budget of the editorial office). The second dismantling was carried out in our technical center when we prepared the material “On our own” and at the same time changed the leaking gasket on the thermostat housing combined with the pump. I must say that the “Zarulevsky” masters of the chisel and sledgehammer were not afraid of the wise motor and famously reported: “You can repair …”.

There was another malfunction - from the category of funny ones. The motor suddenly lost traction, stopped gaining momentum. The editorial council sinned on the turbocharger, and only the consultation of the Chief Gazovsky Diesel Engine helped to diagnose: a thin tube jumped off the boost pressure sensor. Repair took two minutes and did not cost anything. All his life, the engine has consumed diesel without any additional additives and the Spectrol semi-synthetic oil of the CF-4 group with a viscosity of 10W40. Fuel consumption from 7.7 l / 100 km when driving slowly on the highway to 9.8 in the city in winter. What is oil consumption, the former "Steyr" does not yet know. During the warranty period, the diesel was serviced at the Danian service station, then - on its own. An experienced engine operator familiar with, say, ZMZ-406 will cope with the repair of the motor (unless, of course, you need to climb inside the monoblock, change the pistons).

VAZ-341

The engine was overhauled at the 35th thousandth: the pistons in the groove zone were not strong enough (factory defects), so that breaking the rings would pretty much ruin the cylinders. In general, a year ago in the technical center “Behind the Wheel”, a specialist from Barnaul led the engine overhaul: they replaced the block, crankshaft, piston group.

In addition, for 70 thousand it was necessary to change the nozzle (ЗР, 2000, No. 11), fuel drain pipes, and the glow plug control unit. Little things like jammed thermostats, known for carburetor "Lada", omit.

Now VAZ 2104 5 consumes 6.9 l / 100 km of fuel in the city; CF-4 class Lukoil oil is topped up with approximately 3 liters between TO. Spare parts for which it was previously necessary to go to Tolyatti or Barnaul finally appeared in the capital: the Inkom-Lada network of salons took the VAZ-341 under its wing. The best part is that they support the guarantee here. It happened! .. By the way, problems with fuel equipment, if any, can be solved at the Bosch-service station, and not only in Moscow.

Oh yes, there are also factory service stations … Formally, they are obliged to work with a diesel engine, receive spare parts, equipment. In some places they are ready for this, but most stations will study on the motor of the first persistent client.

GAZ-560

Fuel equipment. Czech pump nozzles "Motorpal" for manufacturing defects rarely fail. This usually occurs during the warranty period. The most common reason is low-quality fuel, which clogs deposits with the finest filter mesh at the inlet to the pump nozzle. The plunger pair works under conditions of fuel starvation and wears out quickly.

The same thing happens when the pressure in the fuel line decreases due to a failure of the pressure reducing valve or the fuel pump. Surprisingly, with a faulty pump, the engine, albeit through a stump deck, but it works! By the way, the striking electric pump can be replaced by an analogue from the Volga gasoline injection. It will come out much cheaper than a set of pump nozzles. Enough 100-150 km of run in the above-described emergency mode to ruin expensive fuel equipment.

The first sign of future problems with pump nozzles is the difficulty of starting a warm engine. If one injector fails, the engine will noticeably lose in power, but it’s quite acceptable to drive a couple of hundred kilometers to the repair site. But to disassemble a precision unit on your own is strictly not recommended. Yes, and it is unlikely to have to: with proper operation, it serves 250 thousand km.

Electrical equipment. The starter and generator ("Bosch" or "Spark") are quite reliable. The starter can be burned with long work. No more than three launch attempts are allowed for 15–20 s, after which a break of ten minutes. But more often the “launcher” is destroyed by the ignition switch, which is jammed in the “Starter” position.

The generator on the GAZ-560 is combined with a vacuum pump, and that one has an stuffing box seal that wears out after running about 150 thousand km. Oil, along with road dust, falls on the brush assembly and … make money. I am glad that the release of domestic generator and pump is planned. These will be cheaper.

Turbocharger. Regardless of the manufacturer (KKK, Germany, or C12 of the Russian-Czech joint venture “CZ turbo”) it serves more than 200 thousand km. If the oil pipe, supplying lubricant to it, is intact, then the “blower” can be ruined only by saving on oil. A quality class of at least CF-4 is required, and no fakes from the stall from the curb!

Engine management system. Imported electronics are hard to break. Is that contact where oxidized. And so the whole resource lives with the motor - 350-400 thousand km. Perhaps the only weak link is the electromagnet that controls the fuel rail. A symptom of its malfunction is an unexpectedly stalled engine, which then usually starts up. Urgent repair! When completely refuses, it is impossible to go. Do not confuse failure with a speed sensor malfunction: without the latter, the engine will not start at all.

Filters What happens if dirt is trampled through the fuel filter is described in the "fuel equipment" chapter. If it is not possible to use native filters, you can live with KAMAZ filters, only you need to change them twice as often.

In place of the oil filter, the “Zhiguli” one is suitable for the connecting dimensions, only the area of ​​the curtain is small, and the characteristics of the bypass valve are not designed for “diesel” oil pressure. The result of “savings” is problems with the turbocharger and piston group. The price of the domestic Zarya filter is about 100 rubles. The cost of the piston can be consulted in the table.

There is nothing to talk about riding with or without a torn air filter. Just imagine the process of replacing a monoblock …

VAZ-341

Filters Air - ordinary "Zhiguli"; You will find with the marking 21213 - feel free to put, this is even better. Regardless of the service life of the filter element specified by the service book, 10 thousand km, change it twice as often! The air consumption of the diesel engine is greater, so that the filter clogs faster, which leads to the suction of oil from the crankcase. By the way, such a quantity as in the photo (ran over 5 thousand km) is far from crime.

Oil filter - 2101, the so-called "high". Fuel - original, heated; filter element - "Big Filter" GB-655. About once every 2-3 thousand, you need to unscrew the plastic ribbed cap from the bottom of the fuel filter (the connector can be removed from it once and for all - this is from the water supply sensor, nowhere, alas, not connected) and, having unscrewed and shaken the lever, drain about 100 ml of fuel . With it, the water that got into the system will also leave. Do not forget to pump fuel into the filter by fixing the cap!

The valve mechanism is the same as that of the front-wheel drive family of engines, with the difference that the cams are in full view. For adjustment, the “eighth” device modified in place is suitable; washers also 2108. Clearance for intake valves - 0.2 mm, for exhaust valves - 0.4 mm, tolerance 0.05 mm. By the way, for all 70 thousand km on our motor only two valves had to be regulated! In general, the instructions prescribed to check the gaps every 30 thousand km.

Belts. The external, multi-wedge, which the vacuum pump drives, is borrowed from the eight-valve “ten” (or vice versa). Generator - "Zhiguli". The camshaft rotates the timing belt 2112. The service life of the domestic belt is 40 thousand km, of the imported one is 60 thousand km.

Every 10 thousand km is supposed to regulate its tension; you will have to remove the electric fan - otherwise the plastic casing protecting the belt will not go through the maze of pulleys. Rotating the eccentric of the roller, they achieve that the upper branch of the belt under a force of 10 kgf bends 5.5-6 mm.

To replace the belt, the radiator must be removed. You will have to sweat with the crankshaft pulley - the nut does not lend itself easily. Before removing the belt, set the marks and insert the latches into the 6 mm hole of the pulley and the injection pump bracket and the hole in the block and flywheel (bottom left). Be careful: for a diesel engine, broken phases are a disaster! There is almost no gap between the piston and valves …

Glow plugs of the Rzhev enterprise "Eltra". The service book service life is 30 thousand km, although ours passed all 70 thousand. True, they left their places with great reluctance - the growing coke interfered. Replacement will require a long “12” socket wrench.

If the candles turn on for a short time or not the first time, the control unit (produced by the Cheboksary Elara, marking 25.3763), which is located on the motor shield in the upper left, is almost certainly to blame. First, clean the connector pins, but sooner or later the unit will have to be changed. Ours, for example, has served 60 thousand km, the last ten - already with difficulty.

Injection pump (Bosch 0 460 484 147) is better to entrust to specialists. However, sometimes you need to adjust this thin little thing right on the machine. If the motor starts to stall on the gas discharge, adjust the initial position of the control lever. The cyclic feed screw (at the “rear” of the pump) can eliminate irregularities in operation, reduce or increase smoke (fuel supply increases if the screw is screwed!). Turn the screw very little, making sure that at a constant speed (about 60–70 km / h) the smoke is barely noticeable. Do not go beyond the boundaries indicated by the Boshevsky sealing ring. And remember that by interfering in the operation of the high-pressure fuel pump, you risk a guarantee.

RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS “DRIVING”

GAZ 3102 21-600 VAZ 2104 5

2000 2001 2000 2001

Mileage, thousand km

5 50 25 65

Dynamic

qualities

(Partial load -

2 pax + 25 kg)

Acceleration, with:

0–100 km / h 19.5 20.9 30.8 28.3

0–1000 m 39.6 40.4 44.8 44.3

Maximum

speed, km / h 148.5 150.0 120.0 125.6

Elasticity, with:

60–100 km / h (IV) 14.0 24.6

80–120 km / h (V) 21.7 21.3 44.8 n d.

Coast, m:

120–0 km / h 1924 1929 1316 1630

Braking

from 100 km / h:

stopping distance, m 51.8 54.5 53.5 55.2

With a difference of a year, diesel cars raced along the dynamometer road of the landfill. As you can see, the characteristics of the Volga practically did not change - even wider tires did not affect the results. We attribute the slightly worse acceleration to the fuzziness of the gearbox. The Quartet underwent major repairs in January, which had a beneficial effect on such a “reference” indicator as the “maximum speed” - it coincided with the passport. In addition, by interfering in the settings of a mechanical fuel pump, you can increase the speed by several kilometers … but the car will smoke more cleanly than a steam locomotive. In general, a brief trip to Dmitrov confirmed that both cars are in good health.

And that means that the long-planned “Frost” test will take place soon: we plan a run to the north to evaluate the behavior of diesel engines at very low temperatures. If we don’t freeze our fingers, we will unsubscribe in one of the spring numbers of ZR …

The diesel engine is a novelty for many Russians. To take it or not to take it?

First you should carefully weigh the pros and cons. We will not repeat the commonplace truths that a diesel engine (in most cases) is more noisy and less nimble. Economical, you say? Watching how to evaluate the savings. If you refuel with a “diesel engine” from the nearest tractor, buy oil from “Kamazists”, and adapt the filter from MAZ, the savings will be large but short, and the saved funds may not be enough for repairs … Diesel - it is not for presses, but for people calculating. What is the difference in gas and diesel prices in your area? Can you easily purchase supplies and small parts (filters, belts, glow plugs)? Where do you turn to if specific “diesel” problems arise: with fuel equipment, for example?