Congratulations on the Defender of the Fatherland Day!
WEAPONS OF OUR TIME
MOST OF US SEE THESE MACHINES ONLY ON TV
YOUNG DRIVER COURSE
We will pass it in Ostrogozhsk, in the 37th training automobile brigade.
Six months have passed, and yesterday the conscripts will receive the profession of driver-mechanics of multi-ton military vehicles. By the way, only new recruits with “rights” fall into the training camp near Voronezh: category “C” is mandatory.
"In order of numbers …": tracked GM-569, three-axle floating BAZ-5921, wheeled tractor KZKT-74281 Rusich, multi-purpose chassis MAZ-543. This is not a complete list of equipment, which is taught and maintained in Ostrogozhsk: a total of nine specialties, including repairmen. You won’t count more than eight wheels on one car: the heaviest cars of the Russian army are not driven by conscripts, but by warrant officers.
Get a fire extinguisher, raise the cab, prepare the boiler … Next, the starting heater is controlled from the left driver's cab. The "master" of the machine - the instructor leads his students from the first start to the final exam. By the way, the experience of many instructors is confirmed by business trips to Chechnya, where they went with their cars. Everyone has returned home!
Actually, combat vehicles are very easy to control … but still
4 hours if you please skate on a movie simulator. Computer simulations are no match! The instructor is constantly connected with the student, he can imitate a malfunction, and all errors are fixed by an impartial technique. One of the authors, for example, forgot to give an audio signal when starting.
By car! If you do not take into account the limited review, the BAZ-5921 on the governing bodies is the same ZIL-130. The rest of the cars are both more complicated and simpler: for example, MAZ has only two pedals, but the brake is under the left foot. Since all cars are marked with a "U", not only the driver, but also the instructor can brake. AT
MAZ, he sits at the student, as in an airplane.
The first lessons at the circuit - starting, maneuvering. Graduates of Ostrogozhsk in the KZKT-7428 class receive category “E” in “rights”. Of course, soldiers learn to drive not only empty cars: sometimes tracked chassis are used as ballast. And for GM-569 drivers, a ride on the platform is a mandatory exercise.
In parallel with driving, fighters are studying materiel. Not only driving schools, but also other universities will envy the equipment of classrooms. For example, in the class of cold and hot adjustment of D12A engines, each of these 525-horsepower units can be started up. In addition, cadets refresh the memory of traffic rules … and, of course, they are engaged in combined arms training.
"Snake" are BAZ-5921 and MAZ-543. The first is easier - of the three axles, the front and rear are controlled. From the cab, it seems like a rather big car is spinning around you. By the way, at the final exams, drivers do the same in gas masks …
One of the obligatory exercises is a race on a railway platform. It is required to put the car 3 m wide and 11.5 m long on a platform of approximately the same size.
One of the tasks of the Kurgan tractor is the evacuation of damaged armored vehicles. Accordingly, the cadets practice maneuvering in cramped conditions, an exact stop … A 15-ton winch mounted on a towing vehicle with a 100 m cable will help to “load” a damaged tank onto itself.
During the war in Afghanistan, a training site was built in the training simulating a mountain serpentine.
Behind - a 100-kilometer march, completing the six-month course of the driver. Graduates of the 37th brigade went into the army, and the cars are waiting
TEXT / SERGEY KANUNNIKOV, ANTON CHUYKIN
In the army they are called special wheeled chassis (up to eight axles) and heavy tractors (three to four axles). The military knows better, because they are the main customers of such cars, and the language does not turn to rank these cars as trucks.
There are many models and modifications, there are even floating ones - of the Bryansk Plant. Cars carry heavy weapons, air defense systems, engineering equipment, pontoons, tow semi-trailers with tanks and aircraft at airfields. All these burdens need to be delivered quickly to their destination, regardless of the quality of the roads or the complete absence thereof. Car loading capacity is 7–80 tons, while others are capable of taking the load twice as heavy as themselves. At the same time, huge huge cars should reach a speed of 40–80 km / h.
To achieve such indicators and confidently overcome the terrain, cars are equipped with engines with a capacity of 220-588 kW / 300-800 liters. with. Manufacturers are gradually abandoning tank units, leading the pedigree of the legendary B-2 diesel engine of pre-war (!) Years, in favor of automobile ones. The latter have a significantly longer resource and much more economical (oil consumption is almost 10 times lower!). Designers are working on gas turbine engines - more powerful, but so far, alas, capricious and too gluttonous.
A complex scheme with two engines and on-board transmissions (a classic example from the 60s - ZIL-135LM with a pair of V8 engines on high-octane gasoline) is not used on current machines. A certain loss of survivability (you can move on one power unit in case of failure of another) is compensated by more powerful engines, high speed and maneuverability of modern heavy trucks. Although many still consider the standard of cross-country “one hundred and thirty-fifth” with close middle axles.
The vast majority of cars are all-wheel drive with locked center axles, and sometimes cross-axle differentials. If there are six or more axles, a transmission with a torque converter, which is locked if necessary, is mandatory. Hydrovolume and electric transmissions are promising: these schemes will increase efficiency, while simplifying the layout.
In addition to independent suspensions on longitudinal torsion bars, on some cars, for example, heavy Minskers, hydropneumatic ones are used. Modern requirements - suspension stiffness and clearance adjustable along the axles and sides. By the way, on the move its value is 400-500 mm.
Imagine how to turn around on a car about 20 m long? And in the forest? A mandatory requirement for special machines is maneuverability. The turning radius of three-, four-axle shafts is approximately 13 m, and the modern giant sixteen-wheeled MZKT-79221 (see the splash screen) fits into just 17 m. To do this, several axes are controlled. The eight-axis MZKT has six; at high speeds, the rear can be locked from the driver's cab. On shorter machines, two front axles are still more often controlled. The wish of the military to future designers is all swivel wheels so that the machine can even move sideways.
In foreign armies, heavy vehicles are mainly used for transporting tanks and other similar equipment - it’s faster and the road is more intact. Foreign cars, as a rule, are created on serial knots or is it a civilian truck altogether “disguised” as a military uniform. So many cars of the Russian army essentially have no analogues.
KZKT-7428 - a tank tractor of the Kurgan plant - is capable of towing a 70-ton semitrailer at a speed of up to 65 km / h. The power of the 26-liter Yaroslavl V12 diesel engine is 478 kW / 650 l. with.