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Volvo offers a wide range of bioethanol models in the homeland. Several previous engines were replaced by a single 1.6-liter 180-hp turbo engine. The power unit of the last wave, a 2-liter 145-horsepower aspirated, will leave the stage along with the outdated models C30, S40, V50.

«Вольво» предлагает на родине широкую гамму моделей, работающих на биоэтаноле. Несколько прежних двигателей заменил единственный 1, 6-литровый турбомотор мощностью 180 л.с. Силовой агрегат прошлой волны, 2-литровый 145-сильный атмосферник, уйдет со сцены вместе с устаревшими моделями C30, S40, V50. Volvo offers a wide range of bioethanol models in the homeland. Several previous engines were replaced by a single 1.6-liter 180-hp turbo engine. The power unit of the last wave, a 2-liter 145-horsepower aspirated, will leave the stage along with the outdated models C30, S40, V50. Volvo offers a wide range of bioethanol models in the homeland. Several previous engines were replaced by a single 1.6-liter 180-hp turbo engine. The power unit of the last wave, a 2-liter 145-horsepower aspirated, will leave the stage along with the outdated models C30, S40, V50.

Despite the desperate efforts of the designers to electrify everything that moves, the car in the near future can not do without a traditional engine. The trouble is that on most of the planet its menu consists only of non-renewable resources - oil and gas. However, the engine is not averse to eating diluted fuel. And therefore, the simple business of the hero of the film "Gentlemen of Fortune" for 40 years has taken more than one step forward.

ALCOHOLIC - OUR PROFILE

In the first place in popularity - the addition of bioethanol to gasoline, that is, alcohol from plant materials. About 90% of its production falls on Brazil and the United States. South Americans drive alcohol from sugarcane, the northern neighbors - mainly from corn. Other plants with a high content of starch or sugar, as well as cellulose, will do.

In some countries, the addition of 5 to 15% ethanol is established by law. It will not hurt a standard engine if up to 10% alcohol is splashed into it in gasoline. Columns with mixtures containing more than a tenth of ethanol must be warned about this: older engines may not like this diet.

Brazilians have been practicing biofuel driving since the oil crises of the 70s of the last century. Now in the country there is no sale of gasoline in which ethanol is less than 20% (E20). An alternative to this mixture is only pure E100 (95–96% alcohol and 4–5% water). A mixture of E85 is common in Sweden and the USA. Only “flex-fuel” cars can be refueled with them. Their food system is tuned for ethanol - pure or in combination with gasoline in any proportion. In addition, the octane number of alcohol is higher than that of gasoline, so iron alterations are usually required to raise the compression ratio to 12 … 13.5: 1. Hence - higher efficiency, better power performance and less emissions. On the other hand, the calorific value of E85 is lower than that of gasoline - if the engine is refueled with such a mixture, it will lose about a quarter of its former strength.

In the market of Brazil, the world leader in the use of ethanol (the fleet of flex-fuel vehicles exceeds 14.5 million units), more than 80 models of various world brands are presented. In the US, such cars are almost as popular (about 10 million cars), which forces the local Big Three to also produce biomodifications.

На рынке Бразилии, мирового лидера в использовании этанола (парк автомобилей flex-fuel превышает 14, 5 млн. штук), представлено более 80 моделей разных мировых брендов. В США такие автомобили почти столь же популярны (около 10 млн. машин), что заставляет местную «большую тройку» тоже выпускать биомодификации. In the market of Brazil, the world leader in the use of ethanol (the fleet of flex-fuel vehicles exceeds 14.5 million units), more than 80 models of various world brands are presented. In the US, such cars are almost as popular (about 10 million cars), which forces the local Big Three to also produce biomodifications. In the market of Brazil, the world leader in the use of ethanol (the fleet of flex-fuel vehicles exceeds 14.5 million units), more than 80 models of various world brands are presented. In the US, such cars are almost as popular (about 10 million cars), which forces the local Big Three to also produce biomodifications.

VEGETARIAN MENU

According to non-standard recipes, diesel fuel is also prepared. Raw materials are rapeseed, soy, various oils and fats. Such fuel is marked with the letter B and numbers corresponding to the proportion of plant components in the mixture. The cetane number of fuel is higher than that of a conventional one: 51 versus 42–45. Fuel is highly decomposable, without harming the environment, and practically does not contain sulfur. Of the significant disadvantages - a short shelf life.

Bioadditives to diesel fuel have not yet received such wide distribution as bioethanol. Nevertheless, it is produced in many countries. There are countries where the five percent content of “bio” is legalized and does not require mention in the sale.

GAS TEAM

Gaseous fuel is also obtained from biomass, which is also excellent for automobiles. For example, methane is one of the main components of natural and so-called associated gases resulting from the distillation of oil. Such a mineral can easily replace an unnecessary mountain of organic garbage - from banal manure to waste from fish, meat, dairy and vegetable industries. This biomass and feed the bacteria that produce biogas. Having cleaned it of carbon dioxide, get the so-called biomethane. Its main difference from ordinary methane, which is used by many serial models, is that it is not a mineral. Surely something, but manure and plants will not run out before the end of life on the planet.

Scheme for the production of biomethane (all schemes and tables open in full size at the click of a mouse):

Biomethane Production Scheme

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Biomass also serves to produce another automobile gas - hydrogen. It is isolated by heating the raw material to high temperatures without access of oxygen or, again, bacteria are called to work. Everything is used - from wood to algae. However, this gas is not particularly relevant for ordinary consumers. In the future, they want to use it as fuel in fuel cells that will appear in serial production (according to the most optimistic forecasts of the Daimler concern) no earlier than five to seven years later. And after the same amount of income-appropriate numbers on the price tag.

PLUS ON MINUS GIVES …

All of these alternatives to traditional petroleum fuels, alas, are not without drawbacks. For example, the most common bioethanol has a difficult start in winter. To overcome the ailment, cars running on E85 and E100 mixtures are additionally equipped with an engine heater or a small tank with clean gasoline for cold starting. In Sweden, they offer a winter (similar to diesel) mixture composition - in cold weather, the ethanol content is reduced from 85 to 75%.

REQUIRED MODIFICATIONS OF CAR SYSTEMS FOR WORK ON BIOETHANOL

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There is a purely Russian problem. According to a long tradition, our state considers alcohol an antisocial substance and protects citizens from taxes and restrictions. In this situation, the cost of alcohol fuel is unlikely to be more attractive than the usual gasoline. And will they be allowed to sell ethanol around the clock? ..

There are global hurdles. One of them is the lack of common standards and requirements for biofuels. Where are the guarantees that, for example, a multi-fuel Opel, traveling around Germany, will like bio-gas in neighboring France made from other raw materials? Therefore, modern models that run on biofuels usually do not disdain gasoline or diesel fuel.

TYPES OF MIXTURES USING BIOETHANOL

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The favorite argument of the initiators of the active distribution of biofuels is independence from non-renewable natural resources. Immediately there are several “buts.” First, oil and gas exporting countries will do their best to prevent this. For them to part with the main (sometimes the only) income item is a disaster. Secondly, in order to produce bioethanol or biodiesel in large volumes, huge tracts of fertile land will be needed to grow raw materials. You can, of course, squeeze out potatoes or wheat in the fields - but who will guarantee that hitherto well-off countries will not be on the verge of a food crisis?

As long as the oil and gas reserves are sufficient, and the prices for their production and processing have not risen to a prohibitive height, biofuels are destined to remain only an additive, and not a significant alternative to the main sources of energy. Although the launching pad for takeoff is not bad: the technologies have been developed, production is improving every day. And the resulting kilowatts are relatively cheap. And therefore, biofuels are perhaps one of the most serious competitors to hydrocarbon fuels. As confirmation - millions of production cars, working or ready to run on fuel with the prefix "bio". And as for the remaining difficulties restraining the development of this industry, they are completely solvable.

Public transport of several cities in Europe and the USA was partially transferred to biomethane. However, this initiative has not yet received wide distribution.

На биометан частично пере- веден обществен- ный транспорт нескольких городов Европы и США. Однако широкого распространения это начинание пока не получило. Public transport of several cities in Europe and the USA was partially transferred to biomethane. However, this initiative has not yet received wide distribution. Public transport of several cities in Europe and the USA was partially transferred to biomethane. However, this initiative has not yet received wide distribution.

Higher share of bio-additives in fuel - lower price: compensation for lower energy efficiency.

Выше доля биодобавок в топливе - ниже цена: компенсация за снижение энергоэффективности.