At the entrance to Tokyo, our minibus slowed down a little, and the translator, talking to the driver, explained: at the end of the day there are always problems on this road. And what do they call problems? In fact, for the week of being in one of the largest megacities in the world, this was the only stop (at the same time, we were only 10 minutes behind the planned arrival time). The rest of the days traveled around the city by car, taxi, metro, monorail, bus without any adventure.
It turns out that you can plan a meeting in the city center and get to it exactly at the appointed time, despite the fact that you live in a remote sleeping area. I will not describe the puppy delight of driving along the luxurious highways, which either fly up to the sky up to 30 meters high, or rush into the underground (or underwater) tunnels to the same depth. Everyone must have seen these pictures on TV, in photographs, and it’s difficult to convey feelings in words. Therefore, I confine myself to the facts.
The traffic problem in Tokyo was seriously preoccupied in the early 1960s, in preparation for the 64 Olympics. Then many streets of the city remained unpaved, and he was suffocating from many kilometers of traffic jams. Scientists, by the way, back in those days realized the dependence of the country's economy on the state of traffic. As a result, we adopted a program for the construction of express roads - both in the capital and throughout the country. The first such highway, 71 km long, appeared in 1963. The Tokyo government has adopted the concept of solving transport problems within an existing city through the construction of multi-level freeways and interchanges. To do this, the city bought one-story houses, old block high-rise buildings and inefficient enterprises from the owners to build multi-tier overpasses in their place.
And for twenty years, the Japanese managed to do the impossible - to turn a city paralyzed by traffic jams into one of the most prosperous in terms of traffic management. Highways run through the capital in different directions and at different levels, and you can get from any remote area to any other, bypassing the center, without traffic jams.
There is no free space in Tokyo for a long time, so in some places the tracks are located on five levels, the top of which is at the height of the tenth floor! What is very important, highways do not replace and do not cancel ordinary streets where normal city life is going on. And highways, they are for high-speed movement over long distances, and in order to quickly get to the opposite end of the metropolis, you can choose one of eight free or four paid speed rings.
Tokyo is not Moscow
A few numbers. It seems that the Russian and Japanese capitals are similar in many respects. In both cities, a radially ring structure has historically developed, they are approximately equal in area. According to official figures, the population of Moscow is almost 12 million people (actually - more), the population of Tokyo is about 15 million. The population density in Moscow is 4770 people per 1 km², and in Tokyo - 5966 people.
The fleet of the Japanese capital has 5.5 million vehicles; 4 million cars were registered in Moscow, but more than 1 million more come from the Moscow Region and other regions every day. The similarity ends here, the differences begin. Because in Tokyo today, 28 thousand km of roads, of which 2.8 thousand are highways, and in the Russian capital, the entire road network is only 3.6 thousand km.
In the next three years, the Moscow City Hall plans to build and reconstruct as many as 400 km of roads … New roads are also being built all the time in Tokyo, but at a much faster pace. However, they do not build such wide highways as our Leningradka or the Moscow Ring Road, new highways - a maximum of three lanes in each direction (usually two). The emphasis is on the multivariance and length of new roads. That is, it is better to have two or three narrow roads that go, than one grand highway, which always stands.The taxi driver must ask the passenger which road he prefers to take. The lower is cheaper, the upper is faster. A taxi driver must ask the passenger which road he prefers to take. The lower is cheaper, the upper is faster
Weekday, at about 11 a.m. The map of Tokyo is almost entirely green, a little yellow, but there are alarming red lines. At this time, out of 28 thousand km of city roads, traffic jams were observed only for 129 km. But the Japanese and I have different definitions of the term “cork”. They consider traffic congestion at a speed of less than 60 km / h, on a regular road - less than 40 km / h, and if the speed drops to 20 km / h and lower, it’s a disaster! For comparison: the average speed in Moscow is 24 km / h. Every minute the traffic control center receives information from 17 thousand infrared sensors, which are hung along all roads. In addition, 144 monitors in the center display information from 2 thousand cameras located throughout the city. In the Japanese capital there is no road section that would not be covered by a modern video surveillance system. At the same time, only four officers monitor the situation in the city. They are responsible for driving the city.
Actually, the ITS (Intelligent Transport System) is responsible for this, they only occasionally adjust its operation. The system unites 15 thousand “smart” traffic lights; they, in addition to automatically distributing flows, can prevent many emergency situations. For example, if the car did not have time to cross the intersection for an enable signal, then the system will delay green for a few seconds so that cars in the stream do not collide. Traffic lights react to pedestrians who hesitate at the crossing. If a car of one of the emergency services rides, the system organizes a green wave for it.
How much is in yen?
This is a fact: you need to pay for the speed and comfort of movement in Japan. But if you want, you can slowly (and for free) move along ordinary streets at the first level. The only problem is that on the way there will be traffic lights, intersections, one-way traffic. That is, you have to go for a long time. And on the upper levels - toll roads, very fast. Any navigator (it is impossible to imagine a car in Tokyo without such an instrument) will offer several routes - depending on traffic congestion and fare.
Money is deducted from the owner’s account automatically, in a contactless way: the car flies through the payment points without stopping. The amount depends on the distance: you travel a lot - you pay a lot. Recently, a fixed minimum of 500 yen (about 200 rubles) was introduced for travel along small sections of toll roads in the city limits; at night, discounts up to 50%.City center, morning of the working day … There is nothing to add. City center, morning of the working day … There is nothing to add.
What was absolutely astonishing: cars do not park along the streets. It is prohibited throughout the city and is punished instantly! A fine of 25 thousand yen (approximately 8, 200 rubles) plus the evacuation of the car. Why are there cars, even a bicycle that has been left illegally evacuated! There are parking lots in the city, of course, but they are not cheap - from 600 yen (200 rubles) per hour. And parking time is often limited. A monthly parking ticket in the city center costs an average of about 15 thousand yen (5, 000 rubles).
However, everyone probably heard that in Tokyo they will not register a new full-size car if the future car owner does not have a parking space. This should be exactly the designated parking space, and not the roadside or passage in the courtyard of the house. A policeman specially arrives, inspects the indicated place, checks all the documents and only then gives permission for the car. You can buy or rent a parking space in a residential area for about 30 thousand yen (about 10 thousand rubles) per month. Not cheap? Yes, but after all, the Japanese have rather big incomes! The average salary in the country (after paying all taxes) is 270 thousand yen (almost 90 thousand rubles), and in Tokyo - under 300 thousand yen.
Most Japanese do not drive their cars to work and use them mainly on weekends. But even then, a real Japanese will preliminarily calculate what a trip on a personal car will cost, and compare it with the cost of a train ticket. By the way, young Japanese are increasingly abandoning the car: it is painfully expensive to maintain it. And the right to get is not easy. Studying at a driving school will cost almost 300 thousand yen (under 100 thousand rubles!), And passing the exam of a strict commission is not easy. Much easier to ride the subway or bus.
Most workers in Tokyo get to their skyscrapers by public transport. They have an extensive metro network; several lines belong to the state, but there are also private ones. Many routes of urban trains, they run on the ground or overpasses. A separate, rather large network has a monorail, which also began to develop back in the 60s of the last century, before the Olympics. By the way, everywhere morning and evening it is quite crowded; during peak hours, special subway employees even ram passengers into wagons. Therefore, on some lines you will find first-class cars and special cars for women.
And how not to mention the famous Tokyo taxi! The yellow-black Toyota Crown or Nissan Cedric will dominate anywhere at any time of the day. Only here passengers are more and more foreigners: local people think it is expensive. Perhaps it is so, but I still drove through the night city in a taxi. Beauty! And the price … You know, no more than in Moscow.The city is expanding due to the bulk islands. The modern Odaiba district on one of these is connected to other parts of the metropolis by several bridges and tunnels. Five minutes, and you are in the very center of the capital. The city is expanding due to the bulk islands. The modern Odaiba district on one of these is connected to other parts of the metropolis by several bridges and tunnels. Five minutes, and you are in the very center of the capital.